Transmission of pruriceptive signals.
Bethesda, United States. In Handb Exp Pharmacol, Dec 2014
Current data reveal that DRG neurons and spinal cord cells use a remarkably selective set of transmitters to convey pruritic information from the periphery to the brain: glutamate and Nppb are released from primary itch-sensory cells; these molecules activate secondary spinal cord pruriceptive-specific neurons, which in turn utilize Grp to activate tertiary pruriceptive-selective neurons.
Insect prophenoloxidase: the view beyond immunity.
Shanghai, China. In Front Physiol, 2013
The insect PPO activation pathway incorporates several important proteins, including pattern-recognition receptors (PGRP, β GRP, and C-type lectins), serine proteases, and serine protease inhibitors (serpins).