Single Prolonged Stress induces ATF6 alpha-dependent Endoplasmic reticulum stress and the apoptotic process in medial Frontal Cortex neurons.
In Bmc Neurosci, 21 Nov 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum-related pathway is involved in single-prolonged stress (SPS) induced apoptosis in the mPFC of PTSD rats by examining the expression levels of ATF6 alpha (ATF6¿), two important downstream molecular chaperones of ATF6¿ in the ER stress: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 and ERP57, and apoptotic factors caspase 12, caspase 9, and caspase 3.ResultsOur results of Morris Water Maze (MWM) test showed that after SPS exposure, a striking increase of the escape latency was observed in SPS rats at day 1 through day 6, and SPS rats had much less time spent in target quadrant compared to control rats ( P < 0.01).
Insect prophenoloxidase: the view beyond immunity.
Shanghai, China. In Front Physiol, Dec 2013
The insect PPO activation pathway incorporates several important proteins, including pattern-recognition receptors (PGRP, β GRP, and C-type lectins), serine proteases, and serine protease inhibitors (serpins).