Intradermal endothelin-1 excites bombesin-responsive superficial dorsal horn neurons in the mouse.
San Francisco, United States. In J Neurophysiol, 26 Sep 2015
We presently used electrophysiological methods to investigate if mouse superficial dorsal horn neurons respond to intradermal (id) injection of ET-1, and if ET-1-sensitive neurons additionally respond to other pruritic and algesic stimuli or spinal superfusion of bombesin, a homolog of gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) that excites spinal itch-signaling neurons.
The dysregulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response in acute-on-chronic liver failure patients caused by acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B.
Beijing, China. In J Viral Hepat, 31 Aug 2015
Among the three pathways of unfolded protein responses, the PKR-like ER kinase and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 signalling pathway were activated in CHB subjects and inactivated in AoCLF subjects, while the activating transcription factor 6 signalling pathway was sustained in the activated form during the progression of AoCLF; the expression of glucose-regulated protein (Grp)78 and Grp94 was gradually decreased in AoCLF subjects compared to healthy individuals and CHB subjects, showing a negative correlation with serum ALT, AST and TBIL; moreover, the ER stress-related apoptosis molecules were activated in the progression of acute exacerbation of CHB.
Transmission of pruriceptive signals.
Bethesda, United States. In Handb Exp Pharmacol, Dec 2014
Current data reveal that DRG neurons and spinal cord cells use a remarkably selective set of transmitters to convey pruritic information from the periphery to the brain: glutamate and Nppb are released from primary itch-sensory cells; these molecules activate secondary spinal cord pruriceptive-specific neurons, which in turn utilize Grp to activate tertiary pruriceptive-selective neurons.
Insect prophenoloxidase: the view beyond immunity.
Shanghai, China. In Front Physiol, 2013
The insect PPO activation pathway incorporates several important proteins, including pattern-recognition receptors (PGRP, β GRP, and C-type lectins), serine proteases, and serine protease inhibitors (serpins).