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Activating transcription factor 6

ATF6, Activating Transcription Factor 6, ATF6alpha
This gene encodes a transcription factor that activates target genes for the unfolded protein response (UPR) during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Although it is a transcription factor, this protein is unusual in that it is synthesized as a transmembrane protein that is embedded in the ER. It functions as an ER stress sensor/transducer, and following ER stress-induced proteolysis, it functions as a nuclear transcription factor via a cis-acting ER stress response element (ERSE) that is present in the promoters of genes encoding ER chaperones. This protein has been identified as a survival factor for quiescent but not proliferative squamous carcinoma cells. There have been conflicting reports about the association of polymorphisms in this gene with diabetes in different populations, but another polymorphism has been associated with increased plasma cholesterol levels. This gene is also thought to be a potential therapeutic target for cystic fibrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011] (from NCBI)
Top mentioned proteins: GRP78, IRE1, CHOP, XBP1, CAN
Papers using ATF6 antibodies
Lactate dehydrogenase 5 expression in melanoma increases with disease progression and is associated with expression of Bcl-XL and Mcl-1, but not Bcl-2 proteins
Supplier
Zhang X D et al., In Oncogene, 2009
... against Mcl-1 and the rabbit polyclonal antibodies (Abs) against Ets-1, Ets-2, c-Rel, XBP-1, GRP78, IRE1a, ATF6 and PERK were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, USA) ...
Oxidized LDL in carotid plaques and plasma associates with plaque instability
Supplier
Zou Ming-Hui et al., In Diabetes, 2001
... Antibody against activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) was obtained from Imgenex (San Diego, CA) ...
Tumor suppressor loci on mouse chromosomes 9 and 16 are lost at distinct stages of tumorigenesis in a transgenic model of islet cell carcinoma
Supplier
Pereira T S et al., In Cell Death & Disease, 1994
... (1:500, NB100-2323, Novus Biologicals), anti-ATF6 (full-length and cleaved forms; 1:200, IMG-273, IMGENEX, San Diego, CA, USA), ...
Papers on ATF6
Blimp-1 controls plasma cell function through the regulation of immunoglobulin secretion and the unfolded protein response.
New
Impact
Nutt et al., Australia. In Nat Immunol, Feb 2016
Blimp-1 regulated many components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), including XBP-1 and ATF6.
Dehydroeffusol inhibits gastric cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity by selectively inducing tumor-suppressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and a moderate apoptosis.
New
Cao et al., Suzhou, China. In Biochem Pharmacol, Feb 2016
Concurrently, DHE suppressed the expression of the cell survival and ER stress marker glucose regulated protein of molecular mass 78 (GRP78) via downregulation of the transcription factor ATF6.
Activating transcription factor 6 derepression mediates neuroprotection in Huntington disease.
New
Mellström et al., In J Clin Invest, Feb 2016
DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6).
Smoking-Relevant Nicotine Concentration Attenuates the Unfolded Protein Response in Dopaminergic Neurons.
New
Lester et al., Pasadena, United States. In J Neurosci, Feb 2016
We evoked mild endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with tunicamycin (Tu), producing modest increases in the level of nuclear ATF6, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, nuclear XBP1, and the downstream proapoptotic effector nuclear C/EBP homologous protein.
Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.
New
Gutiérrez-Ruiz et al., Mexico. In Oxid Med Cell Longev, Dec 2015
Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress.
Intravenous Lipid Infusion Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Endothelial Cells and Blood Mononuclear Cells of Healthy Adults.
New
Hamburg et al., Boston, United States. In J Am Heart Assoc, Dec 2015
In VECs, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and phospho-inositol requiring kinase 1 (pIRE1) proteins were elevated after infusion (both P<0.05).
Cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Review
New
Muñoz-Pinedo et al., l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain. In Febs J, Dec 2015
Central to the unfolded protein response are the sensors PERK, IRE1 and ATF6, as well as other signaling nodes such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK) and the downstream transcription factors XBP1, ATF4 and CHOP.
The unfolded protein response in neurodegenerative diseases: a neuropathological perspective.
Review
New
Hoozemans et al., Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Acta Neuropathol, Sep 2015
The so-called ER stress sensors PERK, IRE1 and ATF6 play a central role in the initiation and regulation of the UPR.
Mutations in the unfolded protein response regulator ATF6 cause the cone dysfunction disorder achromatopsia.
New
Impact
Lin et al., Tübingen, Germany. In Nat Genet, Jul 2015
Using homozygosity mapping and whole-exome and candidate gene sequencing, we identified ten families carrying six homozygous and two compound-heterozygous mutations in the ATF6 gene (encoding activating transcription factor 6A), a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ethanol Neurotoxicity.
Review
Luo et al., Lexington, United States. In Biomolecules, 2014
The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) which are mediated by three transmembrane ER signaling proteins: pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6).
Protein kinase R-like ER kinase and its role in endoplasmic reticulum stress-decided cell fate.
Review
Wang et al., Xi'an, China. In Cell Death Dis, 2014
Generally, during ER stress, the signal transductions are mainly conducted by three ER stress transducers: protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring kinase 1 (IRE1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6).
Dysfunction of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Mitochondria (MT) in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of the ER-MT Cross-Talk.
Review
Penke et al., Szombathely, Hungary. In Curr Alzheimer Res, 2014
Another targets are the UPR cascade proteins (PERK, IRE1, ATF6) and receptors involved in Ca(2+) -level stabilization of the ER (Ryr, IP3R).
Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in obesity mediates suppression of hepatic insulin signaling.
Impact
Tabas et al., New York City, United States. In Cell Metab, 2014
The mechanism of improvement begins with induction of ATF6 and the ATF6 target p58(IPK), a chaperone that suppresses the PERK-p-eIF2α-ATF4 branch of the UPR.
PARP16 is a tail-anchored endoplasmic reticulum protein required for the PERK- and IRE1α-mediated unfolded protein response.
Impact
Chang et al., Cambridge, United States. In Nat Cell Biol, 2012
The third identified ER stress sensor, ATF6, is not regulated by PARP16.
Atf6α-null mice are glucose intolerant due to pancreatic β-cell failure on a high-fat diet but partially resistant to diet-induced insulin resistance.
GeneRIF
Ishihara et al., Sendai, Japan. In Metabolism, 2012
Data suggested that ATF6alpha contributes to both prevention and promotion of diabetes: it protects beta-cells from ER stress and suppresses hepatosteatosis, but plays a role in the development of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance.
The specialized unfolded protein response of B lymphocytes: ATF6α-independent development of antibody-secreting B cells.
GeneRIF
Brewer et al., Mobile, United States. In Mol Immunol, 2012
ATF6alpha is not required for the development of antibody-secreting cells.
Endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive transcription factor ATF6α directs recruitment of the Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription and multiple histone acetyltransferase complexes.
GeneRIF
Conaway et al., Kansas City, United States. In J Biol Chem, 2012
ATF6alpha functions at least in part by recruiting to the endoplasmic reticulum stress response enhancer elements of ER stress response genes a collection of RNA polymerase II coregulatory complexes.
A thrombospondin-dependent pathway for a protective ER stress response.
Impact
GeneRIF
Molkentin et al., Cincinnati, United States. In Cell, 2012
Thbs4(-/-) mice showed blunted activation of Atf6alpha and other endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response factors with injury, and Thbs4-mediated protection was lost upon Atf6alpha deletion.
Regulation of microRNA expression in the heart by the ATF6 branch of the ER stress response.
GeneRIF
Glembotski et al., San Diego, United States. In J Mol Cell Cardiol, 2012
ATF6-mediated down-regulation of miR-455 augments calreticulin expression, which may contribute to the protective effects of ATF6 in the heart.
The unfolded protein response: controlling cell fate decisions under ER stress and beyond.
Review
Impact
Hetz, Santiago, Chile. In Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2012
Progress in the field has provided insight into the regulatory mechanisms and signalling crosstalk of the three branches of the UPR, which are initiated by the stress sensors protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6).
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