Cholesterol and metal ions in Alzheimer's disease.
Ann Arbor, United States. In Chem Soc Rev, Nov 2014
For example, (a) cholesterol has been shown to be misregulated in AD-afflicted brains, and the aberrant activity of proteins (particularly, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR)) has been linked to cholesterol-related AD exacerbation; (b) dyshomeostasis of metal ions associated with misfolded proteins (i.e., amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates) found in the brains of AD patients is shown to promote oxidative stress leading to the malfunction of multiple proteins, including cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1); (c) metal ion misregulation has also been observed to disrupt the activity of proteins (e.g., HMGR, low-density lipoproteins (LDL)), required for cholesterol production and regulation.
Post-Traumatic Brain Injury: Genetic Susceptibility to Outcome.
Toronto, Canada. In Neuroscientist, Aug 2014
To provide health care workers with the basic information for clinical management we summarize and compare the data on post-TBI outcome with regard to the impact of genetic variation: apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), calcium channel, voltage dependent P/Q type, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine receptor D2 and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (DRD2 and ANKK1), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), kidney and brain expressed protein (KIBRA), neurofilament, heavy polypeptide (NEFH), endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme (PPP3CC), the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene solute carrier family 6 member (SLC6A4) and tumor protein 53 (TP53).
Two phase 3 trials of bapineuzumab in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.
Jarash, Jordan. In N Engl J Med, Feb 2014
METHODS: We conducted two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials involving patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease--one involving 1121 carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and the other involving 1331 noncarriers.