Cholesterol and metal ions in Alzheimer's disease.
Ann Arbor, United States. In Chem Soc Rev, Nov 2014
For example, (a) cholesterol has been shown to be misregulated in AD-afflicted brains, and the aberrant activity of proteins (particularly, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR)) has been linked to cholesterol-related AD exacerbation; (b) dyshomeostasis of metal ions associated with misfolded proteins (i.e., amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates) found in the brains of AD patients is shown to promote oxidative stress leading to the malfunction of multiple proteins, including cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1); (c) metal ion misregulation has also been observed to disrupt the activity of proteins (e.g., HMGR, low-density lipoproteins (LDL)), required for cholesterol production and regulation.
Rockville, United States. In Unknown Journal, 0001
OBJECTIVE: We assessed four pharmacogenetic tests: 1) cytochrome P450, subfamily IIC, polypeptide 9 (CYP2C9), 2) vitamin K epoxide reductase subunit protein 1 (VKORC1), 3) apolipoprotein E (Apo E), and 4) methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) for their associations with patient’s response to therapy with warfarin (CYP2C9 and VKORC1), statins (Apo E), or antifolate chemotherapy (MTHFR).