Nivolumab versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma who progressed after anti-CTLA-4 treatment (CheckMate 037): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial.
Tampa, United States. In Lancet Oncol, 30 Apr 2015
Grade 3-4 adverse events related to nivolumab included increased lipase (three [1%] of 268 patients), increased alanine aminotransferase, anaemia, and fatigue (two [1%] each); for ICC, these included neutropenia (14 [14%] of 102), thrombocytopenia (six [6%]), and anaemia (five [5%]).
Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: Focusing on antioxidant therapy.
Sapporo, Japan. In World J Hepatol, 27 Apr 2015
In cases with persistent hepatitis due to failure of hepatitis C virus eradication, or chronic liver disease, such as NASH, the treatment of which remains unestablished, it is important to reduce serum alanine aminotransferase levels and prevent liver fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Androgens for the anaemia of chronic kidney disease in adults.
Seoul, South Korea. In Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2013
The small number of included studies, and low participant numbers adversely influenced evidence quality overall.We found limited evidence (1 study, 24 participants) to indicate that oxymetholone can increase haemoglobin (Hb) (MD 1.90 g/dL, 95% CI 1.66 to 2.14), haematocrit (HCT) (MD 27.10%, 95% CI 26.49 to 27.71), change in albumin (MD 4.91 g/L, 95% CI 3.69 to 6.13), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (MD 54.50 U/L, 95% CI 43.94 to 65.06), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (MD 47.33 U/L, 95% CI 37.69 to 56.97); and decrease high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (MD -15.66 mg/dL, 95% CI -24.84 to -6.48).
London, United Kingdom. In Unknown Journal, 0001
In clinical practice surrogate markers are used to monitor progression of disease and treatment response, and include normalisation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, decrease in inflammation scores with no worsening or improvement in fibrosis on liver biopsies, suppression of serum HBV DNA to undetectable levels, loss of HBeAg and seroconversion to HBe antibody (anti-HBe), and loss of HBsAg and seroconversion to HBs antibody (anti-HBs).